AUCTION 23 JUNE
AUCTION 23 JUNE
VIEWING DAYS 17 until 21 JUNE
Mo to Fr from 10 am until 5 pm
Sa and Su from 10 am until 3 pm
Dear friends of art,
our auction house in Barer Straße has the privilege of a location right in the heart of Munich. My team and I enjoy the cosmopolitan flair of Maxvorstadt day after day. It is quite something to be able to pursue one's profession in the middle of a lively art and university area with trendy cafés, bars and stores.
NEUMEISTER is firmly located in Munich's Kunstareal. It is only a few steps from our own rooms in the auction house to the Alte Pinakothek and the surrounding meadows. Hipsters, kids and families, play, picnic and sunbathe there. One of my favorite places in the city. So serene and relaxed. But also so close to and so far from art.
As an art enthusiast and the manager of an auction house, I ask myself: How do I get the people who are enjoying themselves on the lawn to see art? And I'm not the only one who is preoccupied with such questions. Even behind the thick walls of the Alte Pinakothek - which we are highlighting here because our Rubens cover story revolves around it - people are giving it some thought. With an eye on new target groups, they are positioning themselves as an open house, and want to appeal to people on the green meadow and others who have not yet overcome their inhibitions when it comes to art with 1-euro ticktes on Sundays, free admission for anyone under 18, live chats on Instagram, and other digital anchors.
I'm now quite confident, not least because Corona has shown that art and artists - who, like youth, have simply been forgotten in the pandemic - are not merely add on, but essential to the functioning of a free society - even if this may not yet have reached some political decision-makers. Especially as the pandemic continues, questions of meaning arise - and more and more people are realizing that art has some answers to offer, that it can be fun to engage with it, that art conveys values in an enjoyable and instructive way and brings people together, whether in creative discourse, in a museum, in a gallery or in an auction house.
We would also like to bring people together through art with this magazine. It is intended as an invitation to long-time friends of the museum as well as to all those who are still seeking access to art. I would be very pleased if you would accept this invitation. Perhaps we will see each other at the summer auction. Whenever and wherever: Welcome to NEUMEISTER!
MUNICH. OLD PINAKOTHEK. SKY OF THE ARTS.
The Alte Pinakothek, just a few steps away from NEUMEISTER, is the heart of Munich's art district. It was long overdue to visit the famous house and talk to museum makers there who are breaking new ground with old art and shouting to the youth on the lawn in front of the gate: Yes, we're open! Since a portrait of a lady by Rubens is being auctioned off at the NEUMEISTER summer auction (more on this starting on page 24), we always have the Flemish painter in view during our excursion to the "painting store," receive very personal insights into the world-famous Rubens collection of the house from an expert, and let photographer Michael Leis (himself a Rubens fan) set the scene for the master and the museum with his camera. Have fun!
Hans Döllgast's monumental staircase takes you to the Seventh Art Heaven.
Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna with the carnation, c. 1473, Alte Pinakothek Munich. View through Eduardo Chillida's Sculpture "Buscando la luz"
View of the Rubens Room (from left). The Coronation of the Virtuous Hero, c. 1613/14. Lion Hunt, c. 1621. The Great Last Judgment, c. 1617. Hunting hippopotamus and crocodile, c. 1616. Portrait of Aletheia Talbot, Countess Arundel, 1620.
Pinakothek literally means "storehouse of paintings". Unique works of art from the Middle Ages to the mid-18th century are piled up under the roof. The Alte Pinakothek is one of the most important collections of paintings in the world.
Matter of opinion Time Out and Ascent, Hall view and self-portrait
A conversation with Bernhard Maaz, Director General of the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen.
What do the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen "collect"?
The Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen (Bavarian State Painting Collections) look after a central stock of the paintings and art possessions of the Free State of Bavaria, as well as numerous loans and donations. Art historians, natural scientists and restorers mediate, preserve and research tens of thousands of objects ranging from paintings to drawings and archival documents, for example from the family estate of Max Beckmann and his heirs.
Which institutes belong to the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen?
In Munich, they are the Alte Pinakothek, the Neue Pinakothek, which is being renovated, the Pinakothek der Moderne, as well as the Brandhorst Museum and the Schack Collection. In addition, a dozen branch galleries are located throughout Bavaria. This unusual structure in the Bavarian territorial state dates back to the early 19th century, when quarters were established for the state's art holdings after secularization. Some of our branch galleries, for example Bamberg and Augsburg, are even older than the Alte Pinakothek. Incidentally, the Doerner Institute, which belongs to us, is responsible for the restoration and conservation of the collections.
You are the general director of the Bavarian State Painting Collections, which also means the Pinakothek museums - the "storehouse of paintings. So is it mainly about paintings?
The collection profile of the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen has broadened over time. In this respect, the name "Gemäldesammlungen" has only limited validity, but the brand name "Pinakotheken" is established in the minds of art lovers and vouches for quality even where other collections have a home in the Pinakothek der Moderne. While the holdings up to the 18th century - i.e. the Alte Pinakothek and the state galleries from Augsburg to Füssen and Würzburg - actually comprise exclusively paintings, the Neue Pinakothek also contains works of sculpture. In the 20th and 21st century holdings, the classical genre designations have only secondary importance in accordance with the expanded concept of art: thus, in addition to paintings, the Modern Art Collection also contains photographs, drawings, sculptures, video and spatial installations.
What is the significance of the Pinakothek treasures for Munich and the world?
The three Pinakothek museums form the center of Munich's museum landscape. The art area in its density can be compared with Berlin's Museum Island. The ensemble includes the open spaces, which were designed in an exceedingly clever way as a fire protection zone and distance protection and today have a wonderful recreational value: This is how everyday life comes to the museum...
... close to art? Not everyone is enthusiastic about it. How do you get people into the museum?
Museums, it should be emphasized, are first and foremost open to everyone, and we have a variety of ways of providing information and invitations, not just digital ones. All children and young people up to the age of 18 always have free admission! The admission ticket for adults costs only one euro on Sundays - a symbolic price that also attracts people with less affinity for art, virtually half an espresso! Our online activities also fit into this open concept. Last year, for example, we gave the image of the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen a fresh shine under the slogan "Experience Originals," and digitally repositioned ourselves with the relaunch of the website and the launch of the online collection, which contains 25,000 works of art from 17 museums. Together with the "Filmbüro" Munich", we invite you with the #Kunstminute to experience masterpieces from our collections as part of an exciting journey. In addition to the artworks, we also introduce the people behind the pictures. For example, Dr. Mirjam Neumeister describes "The Great Last Judgment" by Rubens in the #Artminute. And numerous other formats have been added, such as live chats on Instagram, films on groundbreaking exhibitions like "Resistant Faces," posts on "Google Arts and Culture" or "Think and Talk," and interactive formats like workshops for families that have been noticed all over the world.
"The work coming up for auction at NEUMEISTER was created shortly before the famous Honeysuckle Arbor. Do you see any parallels? How would you place "our" portrait in the master's overall oeuvre?"
The abundance of works from Rubens' workshop is immense, and yet for all the temporal proximity, the different function is crucial to the design. This explains similarities and differences, whereby the occasionally different involvement of the workshop workers must also be taken into account. And yet the spirit of the times is contained in every portrait. Moreover, the admirable variety of portraits of the master played a role in the respective social affiliations: All this clarifies the "Corpus Rubenianum" in decades of scholarly work. The Munich holdings always serve as a reference.
How does it feel when a Rubens is auctioned at Neumeister?
When a work by Rubens is auctioned, we observe it with particular interest and goodwill, especially when it takes place in our closest neighborhood. The dual nature of art then comes into play again, that it transports spirit and history and at the same time embodies a monetary value. Of course we observe the art market, and there is one thing that connects it and us: These are the art lovers, that is, not only the collectors and enthusiasts, but also those interested in art without a thick
ALTE PINAKOTHEK CHRONIK
The roots of the painting collection reach back to the 16th century.
Starting in 1528, Wilhelm IV commissioned the first history paintings, including Albrecht Altdorfer's famous "Battle of Alexander". Numerous new acquisitions and exhibits from electoral gallery holdings allow the collection to grow in the years that follow.
Important exhibits are lost in the course of the Napoleonic raids.
The Pinakothek opens as the largest museum building in the world at the time. Bavarian King Ludwig I commissioned Leo von Klenze to build the museum, which was intended to delight and educate his subjects.
When the Neue Pinakothek opens, it is renamed the Alte Pinakothek.
As the exhibits are removed from storage, the collection survives the war unscathed.
In the 1950s, the badly damaged building is rebuilt. The "Plombe," with which architect Hans Döllgast closes a gap in the south front that was hit by a bomb, becomes an icon and provides talking points to this day. After the war, gaps are also filled in the collection, not only through new acquisitions, but also through loans from banks, including Boucher's "Madame de Pompadour.
Several Dürer works are severely damaged by an acid attack.
The Alte Pinakothek is one of the most important collections of paintings in the world. It includes unique works from the Middle Ages to the mid-18th century. Tomorrow The time of the Corona pandemic was used to reposition itself for the - digital - future under the umbrella of the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, especially with the online collection and the #Kunstminute.
An interview with Dr. Mirjam Neumeister, Rubens expert at the Alte Pinakothek
What is the importance of Rubens in the history of art?
Rubens has a great name. Not only among art lovers, but also among the general public. His name evokes associations. As one of the most important Baroque painters, he shaped his own style. For subsequent generations of artists - right up to the modern age - his works are points of reference. Rubens was incredibly innovative for his time, pushing artistic means to the limit in order to express his message as simply and unmistakably as possible.
What is special about his pictorial language?
Like no other, Rubens understood how to translate literary material - whether religious or mythological - into pictures. Thanks to his talent for getting to the heart of content, his paintings are readable by everyone. And this, of course, plays a role in his religious paintings. Rubens was, after all, active during the Counter-Reformation, and the Christian message had to be conveyed in a catchy way. When he painted a Last Judgment, it had a function: to show people what awaits them on the day of judgment, namely to be on the right or wrong side - and people recognized that at first glance. It is the dynamics in the rendering that excite me stylistically. And painterly, Rubens knows how to convey materiality like no other. One can literally feel the softness of the hair, wants to reach into it, also suspects the flow of blood in the veins under the skin, whose sensual warmth Rubens - like no one before and after him - expresses.
What does the painting say about Rubens himself?
Let's take a look at the famous "Self-Portrait with Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Arbor". This work, with which Rubens wrote portrait history, was created immediately after the artist's return from Italy to Antwerp, where the 32-year-old artist married Isabella Brant, who was about 18 years old. The man is full of self-confidence and expresses this in the picture. Thus, he chooses the full-figure format, which until now was actually reserved for the rulers. The valuable clothing suggests considerable wealth. As a self-confident citizen, not as an artist, he steps before the viewer and underscores his anchoring in urban society. "I belong to you" the painting calls out to the Antwerp bourgeoisie. And in traditional symbolism, with honeysuckle as a symbol of fidelity and interlocking hands indicating matrimony, he expresses the deep affection of the couple. The crossed legs - and the absence of any painter's utensils - then contain yet another message regarding the self-image as an artist. For with the casual pose that signals leisure, Rubens presents himself as an intellectually active, humanistically educated person who earns money with his head rather than with his hands. For more important to him than the painterly execution - which, of course, he mastered as a matter of course - was the thought, the idea underlying the painting. In the violent, shocking painting "Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus" Rubens goes even further. The painting, which I love very much because of its sensuality, is a declaration of war against sculpture. The elaborate choreography of the group with four people in motion and two horses makes the painting, all-visible, three-dimensional - better, as Rubens says with it, than any sculpture.
How did his paintings come to Munich?
The Alte Pinakothek owns the most important Rubens collection in the world, along with Vienna and Madrid. The paintings were collected over the centuries. This began around 1616, when Rubens painted four large hunting scenes for Maximilian I, of which only the "Hippo Hunt" can still be seen in Munich. His grandson, Maximilian II. Emanuel, acquired an important collection of Flemish paintings in 1698, including twelve Rubens works, some of them from family property. In the following period, works from other Wittelsbach collections were added by inheritance; 32 Rubens paintings alone came from the "Düsseldorf Gallery" of Elector Johann Wilhelm. Today, the database of the Alte Pinakothek lists 135 Rubens works, including those by pupils and imitators as well as copies.
What is your favorite Rubens painting?
I don't have one. ... although the "Angel's Fall" is already one of my favorites. This moment of free fall, it almost pulls you off your feet. I also like the oil sketches. That's something different from the finished, canonized pictures in gold frames. You can understand the creative process, see how someone was searching, how he tried, rejected and executed.
What is your favorite Rubens painting?
I don't have one. ... although the "Angel's Fall" is already one of my favorites. That moment of free fall, it almost pulls you off your feet. I also like the oil sketches. That's something different from the finished, canonized pictures in gold frames. You can understand the creative process, see how someone was searching, how he tried, rejected and executed.
Are there any special features in the presentation of the Rubens works?
We show the paintings in the two Rubens rooms on walls covered with red silk, in historical (Effner) frames that appear uniform at first glance, but are all different. This type of frame was once created for the gallery in the New Palace in Schleißheim, so that today in the Alte Pinakothek one gets an impression of how the paintings were presented in the early 18th century.
Are there any plans regarding new exhibitions?
We are planning a large show for Rubens' 450th birthday in 2027. How do visitors react to Rubens? To be frank: Many find it difficult, feel overwhelmed by the - and I quote the Süddeutsche Zeitung - "horror hams". And I can understand that somehow. On guided tours, I repeatedly experience how the corners of the mouth fall in the Rubenssaal, especially among women. They simply can't cope with the baroque femininity, because it doesn't correspond to the common ideal of beauty. But Rubens would have liked that, too, because he wanted people - however they positioned themselves - to react to his paintings. And he still manages to do that today. By the way, I experience again and again that children are much more relaxed in this respect and are totally captivated by Rubens and especially his monumental paintings.
How contemporary is Rubens?
His - and many other old master - works have an absolute contemporary relevance. We show that in our new, digital mediation format Think & Talk. I'll be talking about the painting "The Dying Seneca," in which Rubens impressively expresses how one can stoically confront life-threatening impositions - such as the Corona pandemic.
What was your most beautiful Rubens experience?
It was in Vienna at an exhibition in the Kunsthistorisches Museum. I was giving a guided tour for friends. We came to Rubens' "Viennese Annunciation" and I was completely in my element. On display was the Annunciation scene with a deeply disturbed Mary: This winged creature breaks through the ceiling, as it were, telling Mary through the grapevine that she is pregnant - without sex. Outrageous. But that's how a divine message works. Full throttle. Boom. Fate. And nothing is the same anymore. Next to it a work by Federico Barocci. There one sees Maria calmly, as if the angel had rung before. Well, I must have described all that very vividly. And that was well received. I felt that my friends opened up to Rubens and that something of my enthusiasm passed over to them. That makes me very happy.
PETER PAUL RUBENS 1577 Siegen - 1640 Antwerpen
- Peter Paul Rubens was born in Siegen, Westphalia, on June 28, 1577, the son of Jan Rubens, a lawyer in Antwerp.
- After the death of his father, the family returned to Antwerp in 1589.
- Rubens studied under Tobias Verhaecht, Adam van Noort and Otto van Veen and was admitted to the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke as a freemaster in 1598.
- Between 1600 and 1608 Rubens spent time in Italy; he worked for Vincenzo Gonzaga in Mantua and traveled to Spain on a diplomatic mission on his behalf in 1603/04. Venice, Rome and Genoa are the most important stations of his Italian study stay.
- In addition to the works of antiquity, he became acquainted there with the works of the great Renaissance masters (especially Titian) and those of his own contemporaries.
- In 1608 Rubens returned to Antwerp, and in 1609 he married Isabella Brant. In the same year he is appointed court painter to the governor couple, Archduke Albrecht and Infanta Isabella.
- In 1610 Rubens acquires a plot of land and in 1611/18 builds a large house with a studio. The next decade saw important ecclesiastical and secular commissions, including the cycle of paintings for the gallery of the Palais du Luxembourg in Paris commissioned by the Queen Dowager of France in 1622/25.
- In 1626 Isabella Brant died.
- In 1628 Rubens was again on a diplomatic mission in Spain at the court of Philip IV, and in 1629/30 he was in England at the court of Charles I.
- In 1630 Rubens married the sixteen-year-old Helene Fourment. Important works of the following years are the cartoons for several tapestry series, ceiling paintings commissioned by Charles l. for Banqueting House, Whitehall in London in 1630/34, and his participation in the festive decorations for the entry of Cardinal lnfante Ferdinand in Antwerp in 1634/35.
- In 1635 Rubens acquired "Het Stehen" near Elewijt/Vilvoorde, a country estate that appears in several of his magnificent late landscape paintings. His last major commission was the designs for paintings for Philip IV's hunting lodge "Torre de la Parada" near Madrid.
- In 1640 Peter Paul Rubens died in Antwerp.
Peter Paul Rubens (1577 Siegen - 1644 Antwerpen) and Assistants By Dr. Rainer Schuster, NEUMEISTER expert for paintings until 20th century, miniatures, graphics and books.
Portrait of a Lady
Bust portrait, turned slightly to the left, looking at the viewer. Label 'National Exhibition of Works of Art', Leeds (1868), pasted on stretcher frame. 'Rubens' added in handwriting as well as several, partly illegible customs' stamps. Oil on canvas. 62,2 x 53 cm. With additions. Canvas relined. Restored. Framed.
Baroque Thoughts and Feelings
Peter Paul Rubens! Few artists have experienced the appreciation by both their contemporaries and posterity to a comparable degree. The work of the greatest Flemish painter of the 17th century influenced and inspired generations of artists - from Eugène Delacroix to Pablo Picasso. His painterly style is unique and the colourful term 'Rubenesque beauty' has been adopted, colloquially, as a description of female attractiveness.
At the mention of the name 'Rubens' who does not think largely of monumental, dramatically composed works of mythological, historical or biblical content, manifested religious depictions of great sensitivity, late landscapes and lion hunts? In brief: Baroque thoughts and feelings in their purest painterly form? And then, in addition: representative equestrian portraits, depictions of high-ranking, magnificently clad members of society, and intimate and private portraits. Rubens: few artists were so little focussed on one genre as he who produced incomparable works in all.
Coveted Collectors' Items
Rubens was more than aware of his prominent status not only as an artist, highly decorated diplomat and art collector. He succeeded in attracting large and important commissions from high-ranking, international clients thanks to the well-structured organisation of his workshop. As a result Peter Paul Rubens became enormously wealthy. Some 10,000 works are associated with Rubens (and his workshop). His works became coveted collectors' items; to this day major museums throughout the world - like the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, for example - are also defined by their holdings of paintings by this artistic genius.
Italy as a Formative Experience
Peter Paul Rubens grew up in a comfortable environment, attended grammar school and entered the service of Marguerite de Linge, the widow of Philipp Lelaing, governor of the Flemish province of Hennegau, as a page. Much pointed to a political career for the young Peter Paul. Instead, however, he began an artistic apprenticeship in the workshops of Tobias Verhaecht, Adam van Noort and Otto van Veen. Rubens is listed as an independent master in the 'Liggeren', the record of members of the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke, in 1598. 1600 was the decisive year in Ruben's career as a painter: on 8 May he was given a clean bill of health by the municipal authorities of Antwerp - a prerequisite for his trip and lengthy stay in Italy. That same year Rubens entered the service of the Duke of Mantua, Vincenzo I Gonzaga, as court painter. He visited Venice, Genoa and Rome, among other cities, studied and marvelled at the works he saw there by older as well as contemporary masters and was preoccupied with his thirst for knowledge of the art of Antiquity and the Renaissance. In Rome he was impressed by the works of Raphael and Michelangelo. In 1603 and 1605 Rubens travelled to Spain in the company of the Duke of Mantua's diplomatic delegation. Important works were painted there that document his swiftly evolving 'personal style'. The impressive equestrian portrait of the Duke of Lerma (1603; Madrid, Prado), for example, his first 'masterpiece', should be mentioned in this context. After his return from Spain the number of commissions he was given increased significantly. In Genoa he established close ties to the local aristocracy and received commissions from the leading families - the Dorias, Spinolas and Grimaldis. Only a few works created specifically for the court in Mantua itself have survived. The artist retained his position there for eight years. During his reign, Vincenzo I Gonzaga's court experienced its cultural heyday having promoted the poet Torquato Tasso and nurtured the young composer Claudio Monteverdi.
In literature, Rubens' 'Portrait of a Lady' is dated to the second half of the period spent by the artist at the court of Gonzaga; according to Michael Jaffé it was painted in 1606/07. What we have here is a bust portrait with the figure turned slightly to the left. The eye of the - unknown - elegant sitter is directed at the viewer. Our attention is drawn immediately to the well-proportioned, youthful face, the delicately blushing cheeks, the sensual mouth with the beginning of a smile and the expressive eyes. The reddish-brown hair, elaborately coiffured, corresponds in its colouration to an ideal of beauty, as frequently celebrated by artists in Upper Italy. Of the lady's exquisite black dress only the upper arms can be seen properly: the sleeves - in keeping with the fashion of the time - are slitted, revealing in just a few places the pale violet of the material underneath. The garment is adorned with gold ornamental embellishments, highlighted by black stones in the middle. A dominant feature is the white ruff; a black veil is draped around her shoulders.
The artist's treatment of colour documents the typical painterly style he developed and refined during his stay in Italy and which would become his trademark. Not only did Rubens succeed - unlike any other of his contemporaries - in portraying the sitter from life and in showing a person with feelings who, through her tremendous presence, seems to enter into contact personally with the viewer. No, his peinture is exquisite, thought-through down to the smallest detail. With careful heightening in white Rubens lends the face plasticity, the skin's surface gains its characteristic 'Rubens teint'. The rendition of the hair is fascinating, created through the careful use of the scumbling technique while allowing the ground to shimmer through in many places. In this respect the present portrait is not inferior in any way to the important Genoese commissions, in particular, executed by the master.
Unadulterated Biographical Document
The ruff, by contrast, is unusually plain; the black veil is also depicted with little differentiation. The ruff and veil are the work of an assistant. The mourning jewellery of Gagates lapis (jet) was also probably added by the same person and the original ornamental stones in the hair altered to match. Without being able to take recourse to the large workshop he later ran in Antwerp, it may be assumed that Rubens called on his friend and first pupil Deodaat Delmonte (Deodatus van der Mont; 1582 Sint Truiden-1644 Antwerp) to carry out these changes. In 1600 Delmonte had journeyed to Italy with Rubens; both worked in Mantua and Rome and the two of them travelled back to Antwerp together in 1608.
Technical examinations have revealed that the diameter of the ruff was originally very much larger and that the lace folds had obviously been executed with great precision. An x-ray confirms the unmistakable similarity to a portrait of the Marchesa Brigida Spinola Doria (1606; Washington, National Gallery of Art) and another portrait, possibly depicting the Marchesa Maria Grimaldi (c. 1606; Kingston Lacy, Dorset, National Trust). In the case of the portrait of Brigida Spinola Doria there is also a great similarity incidentally in the artistic and technical treatment of the hair.
The reason for the alteration to the original design is probably because the sitter was widowed - and the magnificent, courtly attire was not deemed appropriate for a young widow. The original portrait would still have been 'on the easel' when the alterations were made. The above-mentioned examination also revealed that, between the layers of paint, there are neither traces of varnish nor changes or dirtying conditioned by age. The immediacy perceived in this portrait gains another, highly emotionalised dimension through this alteration - that a portrait is not only the depiction of a person in the classical sense, in a generally advantageous pose in keeping with that figure's status, but that a portrait can also document someone's fate in an unadulterated fashion.
The Feeling of Loss
If, as someone living in the 21st century, one wants to try to understand earlier times and to immerse oneself in past cultures, the visual arts generally provide easy access initially. It is, however, well worth taking a closer look at other scholarly and artistic means of expression of that age - for example literature and music. Only in this way does one gain a feeling for the (intellectual) atmosphere of past eras. In the case of Mantua at the time of Vincenzo I Gonzaga this is particularly rewarding: the young prince 'liberated' the famous poet Torquato Tasso from his imprisonment in the Arcispedale Sant'Anna in Ferrara and Mantua fundamentally experienced a major cultural heyday during his reign. Vincenzo similarly furthered the young composer Claudio Monteverdi: in 1607 his opera 'L'Orfeo', considered the first 'classical' opera in the history of music, was first performed. As court painter to the duke, Rubens may have had the opportunity of seeing the premiere of 'L'Orfeo'. The subject of the opera is 'loss': Orpheus loses his beloved Euridice who was bitten by a snake and descends into the Underworld. Apollo, as deus ex machina, comforts the distraught Orpheus and helps him to come to terms with what has happened.
Let our imagination take flight: operas, compositions and artworks commissioned by the court would have been attentively received by contemporaries. Did Rubens, as court painter, manage to see the premiere of 'L'Orfeo'? And did our unknown beauty know of the opera as a result? At least it would seem that she could have cherished similar feelings to Orpheus when - mourning the death of her husband - she finally held the portrait in her hands.
According to information kindly supplied by Dr. Bert Schepers of the Rubenianum, Antwerp, the present portrait will be included in the Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard series, in the forthcoming volume 'Addenda, corrigenda and indexes'. In addition Dr. Schepers confirmed that Prof. Hans Vlieghe and Prof. Katlijne Van der Stighelen have together examined the painting first hand and that, following a recent enquiry, Hans Vlieghe maintains that the painting is an autograph work of Rubens, albeit with some overpaintings by another hand.
Technical examination: Analytical report, Art Access Research, London (Dr. Jilleen Nadolny / Dr. Nicholas Eastaugh), 1 September 2012.
Literature: Müller Hofstede, Justus, 'Bildnisse aus Rubens' Italienjahren', in: Jahrbuch der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen in Baden-Württemberg, vol. 2 (1965), pp. 89-154, here p. 136 ff., figs 86 and 87 (this painting).
Jaffé, Michael, Rubens. Catalogo completo, Milan 1989, p. 157, cat. raisonné no. 52 Ritratto di una nobildonna (with fig.).
Provenance: Ernst Dreyfuss-Wurmser Collection, Sankt Gallen (from 1964 onwards, at the latest). - Private collection.
That the painting was exhibited in 1868 at the 'National Exhibition of Works of Art' in Leeds, cannot be verified on the basis of the exhibition catalogue published. The corresponding label pasted onto the stretcher frame could possibly be interpreted as evidence that is was exhibited there without being included in the catalogue and, as such, as a complement to the large number of other works by Rubens.
Acknowledgements: We would like to thank Dr. Bert Schepers of the Rubenianum, Antwerp, for his kind cooperation with regard to the cataloguing and for pointing out the possible provenance of the painting between 1948 and 1964, the details of which will be revealed in the projected publication of the portrait in the above mentioned addenda volume to the Corpus Rubenianum.
Es liegt eine mündlich formulierte Leihanfrage der Staatsgalerie Stuttgart für die Ausstellung „Becoming Famous. Peter Paul Rubens“ (22.10.2021-20.2.2022) vor. Die Ausstellung wird kuratiert von Prof. Dr. Nils Büttner (Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste) und Dr. Sandra-Kristin Diefenthaler (Staatsgalerie Stuttgart) und steht unter der Schirmherrschaft des Bundespräsidenten Frank-Walter Steinmeier. Ebenso gibt es Interesse an einer Leihnahme für die Ausstellung “Rubens e i Palazzi di Genova” (6.10.2022 – 22.1.2023) die in Genua im Palazzo Ducale und den Museen der Strada Nuova stattfinden wird.
IM ORIGINAL GEPRÜFT Das vorliegende Porträt wird laut freundlicher Mitteilung von Dr. Bert Schepers, Senior Researcher and Editor Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard, Antwerpen, in den Band „Addenda, corrigenda and indexes“ des Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard aufgenommen werden. In seiner Nachricht bestätigt Dr. Schepers weiter, dass Dr. Hans Vlieghe und Dr. Katlijne Van der Stighelen das Gemälde gemeinsam im Original prüfen konnten und Hans Vlieghe das Gemälde auf aktuelle Nachfrage weiterhin für einen „autograph Rubens, albeit with some overpaintings by another hand“ hält. Technische Untersuchung: „Analytical Report“ Art Access Research, London (Dr. Jilleen Nadolny / Dr. Nicholas Eastaugh), 1. September 2012.
LITERATUR Müller Hofstede, Justus, Bildnisse aus Rubens‘ Italienjahren, in: Jahrbuch der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen in Baden-Württemberg, Bd. 2 (1965), S. 89–154, hier S. 136 ff. mit Abb. 86 und 87 (das vorliegende Gemälde). – Jaffé, Michael, Rubens. Catalogo completo. Mailand 1989, S. 157, WVZ-Nr. 52 „Ritratto di una nobildonna“ (mit Abb.).
PROVENIENZ Sammlung Ernst Dreyfuss-Wurmser, Sankt Gallen (seit spätestens 1964). – Privatbesitz. Dass das Gemälde 1868 auf der „National Exhibition of Works of Art“ in Leeds gezeigt wurde, kann auf Basis des gedruckten Ausstellungskataloges nicht verifiziert werden. Das entsprechende Klebeetikett auf dem Keilrahmen könnte daher eventuell als Hinweis interpretiert werden, dass es außer Katalog dort ausgestellt wurde und damit eine größere Anzahl von Rubens-Werken ergänzte.
DANKSAGUNG Wir danken Dr. Bert Schepers, Rubenianum / Antwerpen, für seine freundliche Kooperation im Rahmen der Katalogisierung und seinen Hinweis auf eine mögliche Provenienz des Gemäldes zwischen 1948 und 1964. Die Publikation derselben wird der geplanten Publikation des Porträts im oben genannten Addenda-Band des Corpus Rubenianum vorbehalten sein.
RARE UNIQUE PIECES, ARTISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT AND EACH IN ITSELF A CULTURAL-HISTORICAL DOCUMENT. NEUMEISTER CALLS ON OLD MASTERS OF EXCEPTIONAL QUALITY IN JUNE. IF YOU ARE LOOKING FOR A TREASURE, YOU CAN FIND IT ON BARER STRASSE. THE TOP LOT IS THE PORTRAIT OF A LADY BY PETER PAUL RUBENS (SEE PAGE 24), BUT OTHER MASTERPIECES ARE ALSO LIKELY TO CAUSE A BIDDING WAR. FOR EXAMPLE, THE DREAM OF PARIS, A LARGE MYTHOLOGICAL PAINTING FROM THE CIRCLE OF JACOB ADRIAENSZ. BACKER (1608 - 1651). OR THE ADORATION OF THE KINGS BY BENJAMIN GERRITSZ. CUYP (1612 - 1652), WHO DEPICTS THE HOLY FAMILY "HUMANIZING". FRIENDS OF EXQUISITE PORTRAITS WILL ALSO GET THEIR MONEY'S WORTH. AMONG OTHERS, A PORTRAIT OF THE MARQUISE DE MONTESPAN, "MAÎTRESSE ROYALE EN TITRE" OF LUDWIG XIV, FROM THE CIRCLE OF PIERRE MIGNARD (1612 - 1695) WILL BE CALLED UP. SALOMON ADLER (1630 - 1709) IS CREDITED WITH A BRILLIANT BAROQUE PORTRAIT OF A GENTLEMAN. THIS WILL PROBABLY BE COURTED BY BIDDERS JUST AS MUCH AS THE YOUNG ROMAN WOMAN THAT AUGUST RIEDEL (1799 - 1883) POSITIONED AT A FOREST SPRING. CLASSICAL IMAGES OF LONGING ARE CONTRIBUTED BY ANTAL LIGETI (1823 - 1890) AND JOHANN NEPOMUK OTT (1804 - 1870). AND, AS USUAL, THE PROVENANCE IS SELECT. SEVERAL PAINTINGS COME FROM THE ESTATE OF THE WIESBADEN ART PATRON REINER WINKLER (1925 - 2020).
Jacob Adriaensz. Backer (1608 Harlingen - 1651 Amsterdam), circle
Paris war der Sohn des trojanischen Königs Priamos und seiner Gattin Hekabe. Während ihrer Schwangerschaft hatte diese den Traum, eine Fackel zu gebären, die Troja einäschern werde. Der neugeborene Paris wurde daraufhin auf dem Berg Ida ausgesetzt, wo er von einer Bärin gesäugt, danach bei den Hirten aufgewachsen sein soll. Eine andere Überlieferung glaubt zu wissen, dass Priamos seinen Sohn selbst als Aufseher zu den Herden auf Ida geschickt haben soll (zu den literarischen Quellen vgl. grundlegend Kopp, s. u.). Als Hirte und Jäger scheint sich der junge Prinz durchaus bewährt zu haben, er führte ein ruhiges Leben im erzwungenen Exil. Bis zu einem entscheidenden Ereignis in der Götterwelt: Bei der Hochzeit von Peleus und Thetis - die olympische Götterwelt war nahezu komplett zugegen - fehlte eine Göttin: Eris, die Göttin der Zwietracht. Erbost erscheint sie uneingeladen bei der Feier und erregt einen Wettstreit unter Hera, Athene und Aphrodite: "Wer ist die Schönste im Olymp?". Eine wahrhaft essentielle und dringliche Entscheidung, die einer Lösung harrt ... Zeus sieht sich nicht imstande, sie zu treffen. Stattdessen überträgt er sie dem Hirten auf dem Berg Ida und lässt die drei Göttinnen durch Hermes zu ihm bringen. Die unterschiedlichen Traditionen teilen sich nun in verschiedene Überlieferungsstränge. In das Allgemeinwissen eingeprägt hat sich jene Darstellung, bei der die drei Göttinnen in profaner Entblößung, nackt, vor Paris stehen und diesen nicht nur mit ihrer Schönheit, sondern auch mit Versprechungen für sich zu gewinnen versuchen.
Another tradition says that Paris only dreamed of the three opponents: "For in the forest of Ida, when he had gone hunting, Hermes had led Hera, Aphrodite and Athena to him in a dream, so that he could decide who among them was the most beautiful. At that time, Aphrodite promised him that if he judged that her appearance was more beautiful, she would give him the woman who was considered the most beautiful in Greece. Hearing this, he decided that Aphrodite was the most beautiful." (Dares Phrygius, "De excidio Troiae," quoted by Kopp, see below , p. 37). A conception that characterized the "judgment of Paris" especially in the Middle Ages and was taken up again and again as a pictorial theme in northern alpine art until the 16th century.
The bribe attempts of the three Olympian women are the same, however, they promise him attractive gifts: Hera the kingship over all, Athena the victory in war. And Venus? She promises him marriage to Helen, the beautiful wife of Menelaus. What do you expect from an attractive young (!) man, exhausted from lonely and unsociable shepherding and hunting work, who pursues his dreams? Of course he decides for the promised beautiful Helena and thus for Aphrodite as the most beautiful goddess of Olympus. With disastrous consequences: When he kidnaps Helen to snatch her from her husband, the Trojan War ignites, which would eventually bring the destruction foreshadowed to Hecabe in a dream to the city of Troy.
The "Judgment of Paris" is one of the most popular themes in the art of the Dutch 17th century, the so-called gouden eeuw. It was met with a hitherto unknown interest on the part of the patrons and the artists, but this interest was to wane again considerably towards the end of the century. One reason for the popularity of the subject in the clearly religiously influenced Netherlands was certainly that - under the cloak of a representation from mythology - the depiction of human and here especially female nudity was "sanctioned", "for the more prudery and morality are preached, the stronger is people's urge for freedom" (Kopp, see below, p. 3). This may certainly be true when the three goddesses are shown unclothed, which certainly did not make the young shepherd's choice any easier.
But it is different when one has to speak of the "clothed" type of representation - as in our case. Athena approaches in full costume with helmet, shield and lance. Hera is depicted in royal splendor and dignity, in precious robe. Only Aphrodite is already half exposed, not stingy with her feminine charms, Eros receives instructions from her on how he should behave. And Paris? He sleeps deeply, the mountain spring behind him ripples soothingly, his cheeks are flushed, and he dreams. And he decides!
The personality of Paris has been rather pejoratively, disdainfully evaluated since ancient times: By a wrong decision for the pure feminine beauty, that is for pure carnal lust, he ultimately triggered one of the greatest wars of ancient history. What could be more natural than to interpret the theme of Paris' judgment in a moralizing sense? Already Sophocles distinguishes in his drama "Krisis" the two competitors Athena and Aphrodite as follows: "Aphrodite as a deity of lust [...] who anoints herself with oil and looks at herself in the mirror, Athena, on the other hand, as reason, insight and also virtue, who rubs herself with olive oil and plays sports." (Andrea Harbach, quoted in Kopp, see below, p. 22). Thus, when Paris chooses Aphrodite, who - according to this interpretation - is beautiful but endowed with fewer intellectual gifts, because she has promised him marriage to Helena, he makes himself a corruptible judge, no longer impartial, following only his (youthful) impulse.
Finally, we recognize in Sophocles (see above) a clear character differentiation between two of the participants in the Paris judgment, which is transferred to all three goddesses in Fulgentius, a late antique author of the 6th century: He equates Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite with the three ways of leading a life, the "vita triplex." This idea ultimately goes back to Plutarch and Plato. Athena stands for the "vita contemplativa", the ideal way of life: originally goddess of war and victory, she is reinterpreted by Fulgentius as the goddess of wisdom. And she tries to convince with arguments, on our painting clearly recognizable by her hand posture: With her old traditional speech gesture (probably most famous its representation on Albrecht Dürer's "Christ among the Scribes", when Jesus tries to convince them arguing) she looks at us as viewers as the only one of the figures directly and thus communicates with us, wants to convince US - and not only Paris - of the rightness of her way of life.
Another form of life is the "vita activa", embodied by Hera: Aristotle considers this to be the highest form of virtue, after all, here man dedicates his life to the defense of city and state (cf. Kopp, see below, p. 34). However, in Plato and ultimately also Fulgentius, the negative sides of the "vita activa" also appear: Addiction to honor and adornment, the pursuit of one's own advantage. In our painting, Hera is additionally assigned this rather thankless aspect of her role; her self-confident appearance as the wife of the father of the gods, also emphasized by gestures, with shining crown and precious robe, underlines the character described.
And then there is the "vita voluptuosa", the sensual life: Its equation with Aphrodite is self-explanatory ...
The patron of the present painting must have been very aware of this possibility of interpretation of the "Dream of Paris", as was the artist. The moralizing tendencies in the Netherlands of the 17th century virtually demanded such a representation: the pleasure of viewing the pure action did not want to be achieved as the only goal, art should also instruct, make thoughtful and ultimately bring the viewer closer to the ideal way of life.
The artist who executed the present painting has not yet been conclusively narrowed down. The current state of preservation allows only limited stylistic studies. What is certain is that it is a work of high artistic quality, which for the time being can be classified in the circle of Jacob Adriaensz. Backer. Backer came from a Frisian milieu with a Mennonite influence, and his family sought a connection to the "Waterlanders", a Mennonite community in Amsterdam. Backer would later return to his old home, and shortly before his death he was accepted into the Remonstrant congregation.
Jacob Adriaensz. Backer produced mainly portraits and history paintings in Amsterdam. Artistically, the Frisian was under the influence of the Utrecht Caravaggists and the Rubens circle. Inspiration from the art of Rembrandt is also unmistakable, especially in his portraits of the 1930s. His history paintings of the 40s with literary or allegorical content show Backer's individual style very clearly: the compositions appear additive, strictly constructed. The figures are mostly isolated in light colors, the background is not given too much importance. A certain "stage-like quality" also characterizes the present painting.
Jacob Adriaensz. Backer was to become one of the pioneers of classicism, which was gaining increasing importance in Amsterdam history painting in the middle of the 17th century. Backer's art was of great influence, for example on Jan van Noordt, Jacob van Loo, Abraham van den Tempel but also Govert Flinck and Karel Dujardin.
There is a statement from Nadja Garthoff, Rijksbureau voor kunsthistorische Documentatie, The Hague, May 19, 2021: The RKD considers it well-founded to locate the origin of the present painting in the circle of Jakob Adriaensz. Backer to localize.
Cf. also Stefes, Annemarie, A new Backer drawing in Bremen, in "Delineavit et sculpsit", vol. 48 (April 2021), pp. 2-9: on Backer's drawing of a "Minerva" ("Allegory of the Republic") of the Kunsthalle Bremen (inv. no. 73 Z), which - also with regard to the details of its atrribute (shield, lance) - justifies a localization of our painting in the circle of this artist.
Provenance: Collection of the artist Anton Seitz (1829 Roth - 1900 Munich). - Since then in family possession.
Literature: Kopp, Laura, The Judgment of Paris. An Iconological Investigation of the Paris Myth in the 17th Century Netherlands. Diss. phil. Karlsruhe 2015 (Scientific Publishing, Karlsruhe 2017).
Egbert van Heemskerck d.J. (1666 o. 1676 London (?) - 1744 ibid), attributed to
Egbert van Heemskerck the Younger preferred larger formats, his brushstroke is especially in the design of the figures can be characterized as fast and spirited. This is also reflected in the present inn scene, which shows a winding parlor with eating and carousing guests. At a table in the center are the landlady and a maid, right food supplies and leftovers in still life-like arrangement. The artist was engaged in still life painting, further interest was the representation of fairs and festivals with English locomotive. and folk festivals with English local color, as well as satirical and burlesque scenes. His work is very similar to that his father of the same name, it is assumed that both worked together in the same workshop. Both paintings are in the tradition of Haarlem and Antwerp painting (Ostade, Molenaer, Brouwer and Teniers).
Benjamin Gerritsz. Cuyp (1612 Dordrecht - 1652 ibid.)
REMBRANDT SENDS HIS REGARDS
Benjamin Gerritsz. Cuyp left behind an extensive oeuvre despite his relatively short life, which shows him as an artist who was also thematically versatile. He frequently dealt with many themes, for example, it is assumed that there are about 30 depictions of the "Adoration of the Shepherds". He dealt with the "Adoration of the Magi" more rarely. Characteristic for Cuyp, whose art is strongly influenced by Rembrandt's work, is his feeling for a creative pictorial structure and a clearly reduced color scheme in which brown tones predominate. Through strong contrasts of light and dark, Cuyp enhances the dramatic effect of the scene. In our painting, the Holy Family is anything but idealized; their faces, like those of the other figures, are characterized by almost peasant features. Friendly-modest parents and child receive the high visitor.
Pierre Mignard (1612 Troyes - 1695 Paris), CIRCLE OF
MESSAGE OF THE SUN KING. FIRST LOVED. THEN PRAISED AWAY.
Françoise de Rochechouart, Marquise de Montespan
Inscribed "Me R Soubise / Dag[...]" verso. Oil on canvas. 129.5 x 90 cm. Relined. Restored. Damage to frame.
Despite the identification of the sitter as M[adam]e R[ohan] Soubise, obviously Anne de Rohan-Chabot, Princesse de Soubise (1648-1709), transferred to the mounted canvas, it is very likely a portrait of the Marquise de Montespan. A comparison of the striking physiognomy with the following two paintings, both in Versailles, Musée national des châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, supports this assumption: Pierre Mignard (copy), Portrait of the Marquise de Montespan (Inv.- No. MV 6610, INV 6699, LP 6866) or the portrait of the Marquise by the hand of an unknown artist of the third quarter of the 17th century (Inv.-No. MV 4265, INV 9286, B 1896). Especially the latter portrait shows numerous similarities regarding the shape of the face, the prominent mouth, the slightly arched nose and the sweep of the eyebrows.
Françoise de Rochechouart, Marquise de Montespan (1640 Lussac - 1707 Bourbon-l'Archambault) was a mistress of the French King Louis XIV, the "Sun King". She called herself "Athénaïs" in allusion to the Greek goddess Athena. She was born the daughter of a confidant of King Louis XIII, the king's first chamberlain. Her mother was, among other things, maid-of-honor to Queen Anne of Austria.
After an education at the Convent of St. Marie in Saintes, she was introduced to the court and became a maid of honor to Queen Marie-Thérèse. In 1663 she married Louis-Henri de Pardaillan de Gondrin, Marquis de Montespan, a marriage that was annulled in 1674.
The reason for this was Montespan's role at court: she had befriended - apparently not without ulterior motives - Louise de La Vallière, the king's official mistress (maîtresse royale an titre), who ousted her in this capacity in 1667. On the one hand, Montespan is described as beautiful, cultivated and charming, but on the other hand she was accused of calculation, selfishness and callousness. With Louis XIV she had seven children, six of whom were legitimate. The Marquis de Montespan, on the other hand, celebrated and criticized his wife's infidelity to an unusual degree (for example, he had a requiem mass read for her lost soul), so for tactical reasons her "predecessor" remained maîtresse en titre for the time being. The marquis was eventually banished to Spain and the marriage annulled in 1674.
The Montespan's star began to decline when the king discovered his sympathy for other beauties of the court and even high representatives of the church criticized her relationship with the king. Eventually, the Marquise was "bidden away" as head of the queen's household; the Sun King, meanwhile, had other favorites. Later, when her association with a "sorceress" and poisoner became public, she fell from grace and retired in 1691 to a convent she had founded. From then on, she practiced the role of penitent and publicly apologized for her transgressions in 1707. She then went to Bourbon for a cure, where she died on May 27 of that year.
Salomon Adler 1630 Danzig - 1709 Mailand, circle of
Bildnis eines Mitglieds des Ritterordens der Hl. Mauritius und Lazarus
Dreiviertelfigur nach links, den Kopf frontal zum Betrachter, den Blick leicht nach rechts gewandt. Rechts unten Familienwappen. Öl auf Lwd. 110 x 86,5 cm. Doubliert. Rest. Min. besch. Reich beschnitzter und vergoldeter Laubwerkrahmen im bolognesischen Stil. Besch.
Self-confidently presents a young man in the coat of the Order of Knights of St. Maurice and Lazarus. He poses in an elegant, yet casual posture, wearing an elaborate allonge wig, in front of an elaborately relieved column. The crowned family coat of arms on the lower right suggests that he is a count, the circulating motto can be recognized in parts: "ECCLESIA [...] ILLAM GESTAMUS". Probably the painting was created - under Venetian influence - in Lombardy. There worked an artist who had come to Italy from Gdansk: Salomon Adler. The latter seems to have left his native city already in 1653, in Venice he was artistically influenced. Thus, the influence of the Venetian "tenebrosi", artists with a preference for strong chiaroscuro contrasts, can be seen in Adler's work and also in the present portrait of the (still) unknown Conte, which comes from a South German nobleman's estate. Salomon Adler was especially in Bergamo and Milan at his time as a portrait painter very much appreciated, probably also because his individual style is characterized by a casual, jovial posture of the sitter, his portraits have a clearly psychologizing character.
The Ordine dei SS. Maurizio e Lazzaro originated in the 15th century as an order of merit for the Counts of Savoy, and was later continued in the Kingdom of Sardinia and Italy. Until the abolition of the monarchy in Italy, this order was to be the second highest award of merit in the country. The Order exists to this day, recognized as a non-profit organization since 1951.
Ottmar Elliger (1666 Hamburg - 1735 St. Petersburg)
The death of Sophonisba
Remnants of the signature (on the rest of the throne) lower right. Oil on canvas. 45.5 x 40.3 cm. Relined. Restored. Minor damage to frame.
The queen receives the death order of her husband Masinissa and the poison cup from a servant (Livius XXX, 15). R. u. (on the back of the throne) remains of the signature. Oil on lv. 45,5 x 40,3 cm. Doubled. Rest. Frame min. dam.
A considerably coarser replica of the painting by the hand of Eliger in terms of brushwork and implementation of details is in the holdings of the Hamburger Kunsthalle (Inv.-Nr. 684).
Sophonisbe was the daughter of the Carthaginian commander Hasdrubal and queen of Numidia. During the Second Punic War, she was married to the Western Numidian king Syphax in accordance with her father's marriage policy. After the defeat of her husband in battle against the Romans and her former fiancé Masinissa, she fell into their hands. Masinissa married Sophonisbe. This marriage displeased the Romans and Scipio Africanus so much that they forced Masinissa to send the poison cup to his wife. She drank it with the greatest dignity.
The fate of Sophonisbe shows in great clarity how - not only in antiquity - women were made the instrument of paternal marriage policy. By drinking the poison cup, love triumphs over death in the figure of Sophonisbe. The story of Sophonisbe has been treated in literature over the centuries and was the subject of several operas, especially in the 18th century.
Ottmar Elliger the Younger was the son and pupil of his father of the same name (1633-1679), an important still life painter. After his death he moved to Amsterdam. There he worked from 1686 under Gerard de Lairesse on extensive projects for the painterly decoration of stately homes. As a painter, he dealt mainly with historical themes, and his style reveals Lairesse's classicist influence. Nevertheless, he differs from his works by a clearly more capricious, "baroque" way of depiction.
Josef Ignaz Mildorfer (1719 Innsbruck - 1775 Vienna)
Apollo and Melpomene
Oil on canvas. 49.5 x 64.5 cm. Relined. Restored. Minor damage. Framed.
As a rule, Apollo is depicted in the circle of the Nine Muses. Here, however, he deliberately approaches the muse of tragic poetry alone, distinguished by the tragic mask he wears. He grasps her lovingly by her right arm. A putto pulls the veil of grief from Melpomene's face. On the right putti with painting utensils, on the left a male figure and a defeated satyr after the battle.
Elisabeth Leube-Payer suspects a connection between the creation of this very advanced bozzetto in the sense of a "glorification of the arts" and the environment of the theater, the art of acting and theater construction in general. Thus Josef Ignaz Mildorfer was involved with thematically similar commissions for Esterházy Palace in Fertöd and the Hofburg and Kärntnertortheaters in Vienna.
At the beginning of his artistic career as a fresco, history and battle painter, Josef Ignaz Mildorfer was still clearly oriented towards Paul Troger's model. In the course of his career, his development led from pathetic, color-intensive works of the early period to sensitive depictions of more moderate coloration to more strictly conceived works of the late period. As a professor at the Vienna Academy (1751-1759), Mildorfer influenced numerous students. These included Johann Baptist Wenzel Bergl, Franz Sigrist and - as the most important of the students - Franz Anton Maulbertsch.
Gottfried (Goffredo) Wals (circa 1600 Cologne - 1638 or 1640 Calabria)
Gerrit Claesz. Bleker probably received his lessons from one of the so-called Prärembrandtists from Amsterdam. His students were Pieter Adelaer, Paulus van der Goes and David Decker. In 1643 Bleker was head of the Haarlem guild. As a painter, Bleker specialized in depicting biblical histories and battle scenes. Throughout his life he had a preference for multi-figure scenes, which can also be seen in this painting. An artistic influence of Pieter Lastman is unmistakable. His contemporaries particularly praised Bleker's way of depicting landscapes, and the realistic rendering of animals, especially cattle, is characteristic of his work. His last dated painting is from 1642. In 1653, the artist retired to Groenendaal, where he had purchased a country house. Jan Miense Molenaer and Judith Leyster, two of the most famous Dutch artists of the 17th century, lived in his neighborhood.
August Riedel (1799 Bayreuth - 1883 Rom)
Bathing Roman woman
Signed and inscribed with place name "Roma" and dated 1840 lower right. Oil on canvas. 77 x 54.5 cm. Minor damage. Damage to frame.
Cf.: Morgenblatt für gebildete Leser - Kunstblatt, number 20, 9 March 1843, page 83: the above-cited appraisal of the "Badenden Römerin" in relation with the review of the Berlin exhibition of 1842.- Ibid., number 56, 13 July 1843, page 236: mention of a lithograph "Die badende Italienerin" by (Robert) Theer: probably based on the present painting and thus evidence of the work's early popularity. - Boetticher, Friedrich von, Malerwerke des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. Volume II, 1. Leipzig 1941 (reprint), page 428, number 22 "Eine badende Römerin": probably the present painting. Galerie Winter in Vienna is named there as the owner. Also mentioned are the exhibition of the picture in Berlin in 1842, the steel engraving by W. French after it (for Adolph Görling's "Belvedere oder Die Galerien von Wien": steel engraving collection of the most excellent paintings together with text, consisting of notes about the painter and the school which they belong, as well as related historical novellas and genre pieces", Leipzig / Dresden 1857/58) as well as the engraving "La Baigneuse" by C. Allais in Royalfolio.
AT THE SOURCE
A young Roman woman sits half-naked at a shady forest spring. She is surrounded by lush vegetation. With her head tilted, she is about to dip her foot into the cool water. Various light sources lend the painting a mysterious character: from the upper left, silvery light falls on the leaves in the background, reflected by the beauty's headband, her right shoulder, and the drapery of her melon-colored skirt. From the right, in turn, warm sunlight makes her left side shine. In a few places it flashes like a will-o'-the-wisp from the stony background and the plants on the ground, a glistening light reflex emphasizes the area between the right upper arm and the bather's chest.
"Italy has once again had to do a good job, but these pictures are no longer as popular as they used to be. A picture by A. Riedel, however, makes an exception; the Roman woman preparing to bathe exerts a mysterious charm on every viewer. This figure, full of delicate beauty, in the middle of the gloomy, by creepers wildly overgrown bank slope, with the white little foot cautiously exploring the coldness of the water, could hardly find its equal also among the other creations of the painter". With these well-chosen words, the critic of Schorn's Kunstblatt describes the "Bathing Roman Woman", which was presented at the Berlin Academic Art Exhibition in 1842. Shortly before, this same organ had described what is probably the master's most famous work, the "Judith" of the Munich Neue Pinakothek, also painted in Rome in 1840 and added to his collection by King Ludwig I of Bavaria. Ludwig I held August Riedel's paintings in high esteem and acquired further paintings by his hand, partly through the mediation of his art agent Martin von Wagner.
Together with the "Sakuntula" painted in the same period, whose creation was closely followed by the writers of Schorn's Kunstblatt, the "Judith" established Riedel's fame above all as a colorist. With the "Bathing Roman Woman" a third painting joins these masterpieces.
Although the dimensions of the painting exhibited in Berlin are unknown, the extensive correspondence of the composition with the steel engraving by W. French, titled "Girl Bathing / Badende Römerin" (see below) and the title in the Schorn'sche Kunstblatt make the identity of the present painting with the exhibited one highly probable.
August Riedel came from a family of architects in Bayreuth. In 1818 he was accepted into the class for history painting at the Munich Academy (as a student of Robert von Langer), and as early as 1823 he made his first trip to Florence and Rome - together with his friend and fellow painter Paul Emil Jacobs. After his return, he studied the works of Correggio and Raphael in Dresden, and in 1828/29 he was again in Rome.
Until 1832 he was still working in Munich on the painting of the Herzog-Max-Palais (together with Robert von Langer), but then settled permanently in Rome. August Riedel is considered one of the main representatives of Roman genre painting of his time, as one of the first German painters he represented an extremely effective colorism, which was defined - as in our painting - by the use of different light sources and sometimes gives the compositions an unreal, shining from itself, "supratemporal" character.
Antal Ligeti (1823 Nagykároly - 1890 Budapest)
Sicilian landscape with a view of the bay of Palermo
In the foreground ruins and a shepherd with goats, on the right on a hill a monastery church. L. u. signed and dated 1864. Oil on lwd. 106 x 158,5 cm. Doubled, rest. Craquelé. Frame.
"ITALY WITHOUT SICILY MAKES NO IMAGE IN THE SOUL: HERE FIRST IS THE KEY TO EVERYTHING." Goethe's Italian Journey, Palermo entry from April 13, 1787
After beginnings as a merchant, Antal Ligeti went to Italy in 1845 to receive his artistic training in Florence from his compatriot Káróly Markó I (1791 Leutschau - 1860 Villa Appeggi near Florence). The influence of his teacher is evident in Ligeti's work throughout his life.
In 1855 a long study trip, financially supported by Stephan Count Károly, took him through Italy, Greece, Egypt and the Middle East. In 1861 he returned to Hungary and settled in Budapest, where from 1868 he was also curator of the local picture gallery.
Ligeti's paintings are characterized by romantic landscapes of Italy, the Orient and his native Hungary. This painting from 1864 is also a document of how the landscapes of his study trip inspired the artist again and again.
Provenance: Weinmüller, Munich, auction 146, March 14-16, 1973, cat. no. 1671. - South German private collection.
Josef Wopfner (1843 Schwaz am Inn - 1927 Munich)
"One can certainly not express the pious devotion, the devotional elevation of the soul to God more touching and moving than in this picture, where everything rests and is silent, and yet is full of powerful inner life. [...] The most powerful impressions in art are always also the simplest, and here Wopfner's 'Ave Maria' is truly ingenious."
Art critic Friedrich Pecht in "Die Kunst für Alle" 1892 about the present subject.
Hail Mary on the Chiemsee
Signed and inscribed with place name München lower left. Oil on panel. 14 x 18 cm. Restored. Framed.
In a small format Josef Wopfner reproduces a theme that has occupied him several times: The devotion on the evening lake, a pause during the crossing to the island, from the monastery church, no longer far away, the evening chime can be heard.
A "quiet" pictorial subject, which stands in clear contrast to the moving crossings in the storm, the routine description of the activities of the Chiemsee fishermen, which actually characterize his work. And yet a theme that was obviously close to the artist's heart and was often taken up by him: An "Abendläuten" was presented, for example, as the property of Prince Luitpolds of Bavaria, the later Prince Regent, in 1883 at the International Art Exhibition in Munich, including at the great Munich Jubilee Exhibition in 1888, one showed a large-format "Ave Maria". This painting met with the greatest interest, it was subsequently admired at other important exhibitions, reproduced in popular magazines.
In the artist's work, two representations of the "Ave Maria" are particularly close to our painting. These were created in 1890 and around 1890, respectively, in a much larger format. The painting, dated 1890, was also reproduced in "Die Kunst für Alle" and in the "Gartenlaube". The compositional match extends to details, the evening haze over the surface of the water blurring the silhouette of the mountain and the silvery shining crescent moon in the evening sky.
Friedrich Pecht, an important authority on art criticism in his time, aptly describes this painting in "Die Kunst für Alle" (Art for Everyone) in 1892: "One can certainly not express the pious devotion, the devotional elevation of the soul to God in a more touching and moving way than in this picture, where everything rests and is silent, and yet is full of powerful inner life. [...] The most powerful impressions in art are always also the simplest, and here Wopfner's 'Ave Maria' is truly ingenious." (quoted from Holz / Rauch, see below , p. 34).
Apparently, the artist corresponded to the artistic taste of his contemporaries with the choice of the subject of the picture. Not only was rural genre painting, indeed landscape painting per se, in particular demand at a time of great economic and social change, but apparently there was also a great inner need among art lovers to oppose the ever-increasing "noise" of the outside world with these "quiet" pictures. In the turbulent big city - where a large part of the well-heeled collectors lived - people wanted to dream themselves into the idyll of the rural world, of monastic security, into a world of clearly defined rituals that were also determined by confession. The longing for a simple, better world seemed to be satisfied by such pictorial creations. A longing that was and is always current.
Josef Wopfner joined in an individual way a pictorial tradition of the 19th century, which in its core goes back to Jean-François Millet's famous "Angelusläuten" (1858). Among the most important, symbolistically charged works of this succession is also the no less famous "Ave Maria a trasbordo" by Giovanni Segantini (1882).
Vgl. Boetticher, Friedrich von, Malerwerke des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. Bd. II, 2. Leipzig 1941 (Reprint), S. 1038, Nr. 13 und 21 (die beiden oben erwähnten Gemälde). - Holz, Irmgard / Rauch, Alexander, Josef Wopfner 1843-1927. Rosenheim 1989, S. 204, WVZ-Nr. 245 und 246 (mit Abb.), letztere mit Farbtafel S. 129: die beiden erwähnten, kompositionell vergleichbaren Darstellungen des "Ave Maria".
Heinrich von Zügel (1850 Murrhardt - 1941 Munich)
Heinrich von Zügel is considered the most important Munich animal painter of the time around 1900. Since 1871 Zügel was represented with his works exhibitions, the only 23-year-old was awarded the World Exhibition 1873 the Golden Medal at the Vienna World's Fair in 1873. 1876 began museums began to buy his works including the Berlin National National Gallery and the Bavarian State Painting Collections.
Rest in the forest
Signed lower left, inscribed with place name München and dated (18)83. Oil on panel. 47.5 x 68.5 cm. Sliding battens. Restored. Damage to frame.
Literature: Diem, Eugen, Heinrich von Zügel. Leben - Schaffen - Werk. Recklinghausen 1975, catalogue raisonné number 247 (with illustration): there without any dimensions and with erroneous information about canvas as the picture carrier
Provenance: private collection, South Germany
The present painting can be considered exemplary for Heinrich von Zügel's painting style in the 80s of the 19th century. The "plein airism", i.e. the open-air painting of this time, is described by the great connoisseur of Zügel's work, Eugen Diem, as follows: "If you put the main works created in these eighties together comparatively, a stream of light flickers towards you, which enchants the everyday processes with poetry." (Diem, see below , p. 19). The skins of the sheep are rendered in the highest refinement and material condensation.
Heinrich von Zügel is considered the most important Munich animal painter of the time around 1900. Early on, the talent of the artist, who was born in the Swabian Forest as the son of a shepherd, was discovered and promoted. As early as 1864 he received a two-year scholarship from Prince Hermann of Saxony-Weimar, followed by a stay at the Stuttgart School of Arts and Crafts in 1867-69. At the age of nineteen, initially as a student of Karl Theodor von Piloty, he entered the Munich Art Academy. From 1871 Zügel's works were represented at exhibitions, and the 23-year-old was awarded the Gold Medal at the Vienna World's Fair in 1873. In 1876, major museums began to purchase his works, including the Berlin National Gallery and the Bavarian State Painting Collections.
Alexander Koester (1864 Bergneustadt - 1932 Munich)
Eighteen white ducks on the shore
Signed lower left. Pastel on cardboard. 45.5 x 64.5 cm. Minor rubbing. Framed.
Catalogue Raisonné: not in Diem.
Among Alexander Koester's pastels depicting ducks, this work certainly occupies an outstanding place. It is characterized not only by a balanced, yet refined arrangement of the ducks, but also convinces with a restrained, finely graded coloration. In only a few works has Alexander Koester succeeded in giving the water surface such a pearlescent sheen as in the present work.
THE SUMMER AUCTION IS HIGHLY EQUIPPED IN THE CRAFTS AND ANTIQUES AREA. A HIGHLIGHT ARE THREE LARGE "PERSIAN" ORNAMENTAL VASES FROM THE ROYAL PORCELAIN MANUFACTORY BERLIN, BASED ON A SCHINKEL DESIGN; YOU CAN REALLY LOOK FORWARD TO THE INTERNATIONAL BIDDERS' BATTLES HERE. ALSO FROM BERLIN, A CHANDELIER FROM WERNER & MIETH ARRIVED TO US IN BARER STRASSE. SUCH DESIRED LOVERS 'PIECES SHOW EUROPE'S CASTLES IN THE MOST BEAUTIFUL LIGHT UP TO TODAY. THE ROCOCO CANDLE CHANDELIERS, IN THE VIRTUOUS FORM OF “STYLE ROCAILLE”, AS WELL AS SEVERAL MURANO CHANDELIERS AND A SEVEN-LAMP MEISSEN CHANDELIER ARE NOT LESS LIGHTING. A NORTH GERMAN PRIVATE COLLECTION HAS SEVERAL IMPRESSIVE WORKS FROM THE 18TH CENTURY, INCLUDING A STRONG CHARACTERISTIC CABINET FROM SOUTH GERMAN ROOM, A MAGIC CLOCK WITH A TOOTHING FANCY FANCY. THE AUCTION PORTFOLIO IS COMPLETED BY A SMALL LOT BY RICHARD RIEMERSCHMID WITH A NOBLE MAHAGONI DESK AS A HIGHLIGHT.
“PERSIAN” FROM PRUSSIA BY DR: MELITTA JONAS M.A.
Based on a Schinkel design: Ornamental vases from the Königliche Porzellanmanufaktur Berlin
Let us put ourselves in Berlin in 1821. Exactly 200 years ago, the splendid court festival “Lalla Rookh” was held there in honor of a visit by the Russian grand dukes Nikolaus Pawlowitsch and Alexandra Feodorovna in Berlin.
Berlin knew the Grand Duchess well, after all she was born Princess Charlotte of Prussia - the eldest daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm III. and the legendary Queen Luise. After the death of Tsar Alexander I in 1825, Nicholas succeeded him to the throne as Emperor Nicholas I - and for the first time a Prussian woman became the “First Lady” of what was then the most powerful empire of Europe as Empress of Russia.
The motto of the festival followed a literary model by Thomas Moore. He had published the poem "Lalla Rookh" set at the Persian court in India in 1817. The protagonist of the oriental romance is a fictional daughter of the great mogul Aurangzeb, who ruled in the 17th century. Her nickname Lalla Rookh (or Lala-Rukh) stands for "tulip" or "rosy cheek / face" and was often used in Persian poetry.
In the aftermath of the legendary court festival, Karl Friedrich Schinkel designed a set of vases on behalf of the Prussian court in 1823 - and, as the designs show, he was inspired by Lalla Rookh. In 1824 Schinkel's design was first made for King Friedrich Wilhelm III by the Königliche Porzellanmanufaktur (KPM) in Berlin. carried out by Prussia. The vases showed in the same shapes a figurative decoration with a painting of scenes from Lalla Rookh with actors in historical costumes. Another set of three with scenes from Lalla Rookh was executed in 1843 and given to the Russian Tsar couple as a souvenir of the court festival. It is now in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg.
The set of vases with "fleurs en terrasse" decor, which is now coming up for auction at NEUMEISTER, was manufactured for the brands between 1837 and 1844 at about the same time. The court loved flowers, so “Persian” was now only the shape of the two smaller, baluster-shaped side vases, which are influenced by the Moorish style (Alhambra vases), while the larger central vase is based on Roman amphorae. The walls are decorated with rich, polychrome floral painting, including tulips, daffodils, bluebells and roses. Speaking of which: roses had a special meaning for Charlotte and Alexandra Feodorowna. Above all, she loved white roses, and loosely based on the heroine of the chivalric novel "The Magic Ring" by Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué - which was one of the royal siblings' favorite books - she adopted the nickname "Blanche Fleur" in her youth and wore it in Family Circle. By the way: During a later visit by the tsarina to the Prussian court, on the occasion of her birthday, which was also her wedding day, on July 13, 1829, another magnificent court festival was held in the New Palace in Potsdam under the motto “Magic of the White Rose”.
But the vase story continues. As can be seen in the KPM-Conto book with an entry of February 15, 1846, another set of vases, also decorated with a floral decoration, was made for Duke Ernst II of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Duke Ernst II was extremely art-loving, for example had the art collections at the Coburg Fortress and at Friedenstein Castle expanded considerably and the Ducal Museum built in Gotha. His younger brother, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, married the British Queen Victoria in 1840. She visited Coburg seven times and certainly had the opportunity to admire the imposing set of vases. A large single Persian KPM vase was on display at the London World's Fair in 1851. And in the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul there are two large single KPM vases, one with a flower painting comparable to the one at hand, the other with a large flower painting. The vase set that is now being called is of unique art-historical importance - and has an aura that delighted visitors to the NEUMEISTER branch in Berlin at a preliminary presentation at the beginning of May. Now the vases in Munich are waiting for the bid of an art lover who enjoys them and adds a new chapter to the wonderful story of the “Persian” vases from Berlin.
An eight-light chandelier
Berlin, circa 1800-1810. Attributed to Bronzewarenfabrik Werner & Mieth
Brass, gilt. Prismatic glass hanging pendants. Ornamental decoration and openwork. Height 110 cm. Diameter 80 cm.
CASTLES IN BEAUTIFUL LIGHT
Their chandeliers adorn Europe's castles: Werner & Mieth. In 1792, Christian Gottlieb Werner and Gottfried Mieth founded their manufactory in Berlin. Initially working at the Königliche Porzellanmanufaktur as modelers and bossers, they went into business for themselves as early as 1791 - with the idea of a "Bronze und Kunstsachen Fabrik" (bronze and art supplies factory), ergo founding a partnership together with the master brass founder Friedrich Luckau jun.
For more than four decades, Werner & Mieth were the most important Berlin manufacturers of handcrafted bronze goods, including fanciful chandeliers with finely cut glass hangings. Werner & Mieth gained international recognition mainly thanks to the special quality and the wide range of their products.
The company quickly went uphill. As early as 1794, Werner & Mieth regularly presented their works of art with great success at the Berlin Academy Exhibitions, which increased their reputation accordingly. In 1797, the manufactory, which was renamed Werner and Nephews in 1822, employed over 30 craftsmen. Warehouses were located in Berlin, Hamburg, Leipzig, Breslau and London, and the company also shipped to St. Petersburg.
Those who thought highly of themselves ordered bni Werner & Mieth, preferably ornate one-offs. At the beginning of the 18th century, the company supplied Europe's princely courts. The business was given an early boost by an order from Wilhelmine von Lichtenau, the mistress of King Frederick William II, who, known for her good taste, helped decorate several royal residences. Later, Werner & Mieth made chandeliers for the Crown Prince's Palace and the Winter Chambers of King Frederick William II in Charlottenburg Palace, among others. Special collector's items are outstanding implementations of Karl Friedrich Schinkel's designs for Europe's aristocratic residences, which Werner & Mieth's chandeliers still shine in the most beautiful light today.
[1868 - 1957] is one of the most important Art Nouveau artists. He played a key role in shaping the German living environment at the beginning of the century. Architecture, design. Interior decoration: Riemerschmid was a universal artist, designed furniture, carpets, fabrics, wallpaper, mirrors, cutlery, glass and porcelain, but also houses, factories and entire settlements. In the summer auction, a mahogany desk, a mirror and six southern wine glasses will be auctioned.
A pair of girandoles, two-flame
France (Paris), 18th century
Bronze, vergoldet. Spiralig gewundener Schaft über geschweiftem Fuß mit Blumenranke. Geschweifte Rankenarme um zentralen Blattschaft. Rest., min. besch. Bohrlöcher für Elektrifizierung. Die Rankenarme abnehmbar. H. 44 cm.
Imaginative, playful, spontaneous, almost wild - these adjectives could be used to describe the design of the pair of candlesticks, which can also be used as two-flame girandoles with an attachment.
The traditional structure of the chandelier in foot, vertical shaft and eaves shell merges here into an organic unit of palm leaves in S-curves. Starting from an asymmetrical base, they spiral in a spiral motion up to the irregularly shaped spout. The contrast between the polished and matt surfaces of the gilded bronzes increases the impression of dynamism and liveliness.
Marseille, 3rd quarter of the 18th century, manufacture Robert
Faience. Coloured decoration. Restored, damaged. 27 x 37 x 25 cm.
An eight-light chandelier
North German, mid-19th century
Wood, stucco and metal, gold-painted. Restored, additions, damaged. Height 82 cm.
A table clock "Porte-Montre" with ecritoire
Paris/Zurich circa 1800, watchmaker Christofle Zeller
Bronze, chased, matt and gloss gold-plated / burnished. Inserts made of bronze, glass and porcelain for ink, pounce and quill pens. Embedded pocket watch with verge escapement, chain and fusee. White enamel dial with Roman and Arabic numerals. Gilt brass plate inscribed "CHR ZELLER a ZÜRICH" (Viebahn according to expert opinion). Key. 16 x 16.5 x 11 cm.
A mantle clock "à l'éléfant"
Paris, Louis XV, probably mid-18th century, Gille L'Ainé
Gilt bronze case, partly burnished. Enamel dial with Roman and Arabic numerals. 8-day movement. Pendulum with thread suspension. Countwheel striking the half hours on a bell. Dial and brass plate inscribed "Gille L'Ainé a Paris". Key. Hairline cracks to dial. 42 x 30 x 16 cm.
South German (Main-Franconia?), mid-18th century
Walnut, veined walnut, plum and maple veneer. Strapwork marquetry and relief decoration. Old lock. Restored, signs of age / wear and tear. Interior with additions. 228 x 187 x 70 cm.
PRINCIPAL SHINE IS ABOVE THE SUMMER JEWELRY AUCTION IN THE NEUMEISTER HOUSE. THREE BRACELETS WITH COLOR STONES AND DIAMONDS WILL BE AUCTIONED, PROBABLY A GIFT FROM KING LUDWIG II. TO EUGENIE VON DOLLMANN. ALSO OF PRINCIPAL PROVENANCE IS THE BRACELET WITH DIAMONDS AND CULTURED PEARLS THAT QUEEN MARIE SOPHIE OF SICILY - SISIS SISTER - GIVED HER NICE PRINCESS MARGARETHE OF THURN AND TAXIS. MAGNIFICENT JEWELERY WITH EXOTIC-MYSTERIOUS AURA ARE THE MAGNIFICENT INDIAN WEDDING NECKLACE, DECORATED WITH EMERALD, DIAMONDS AND RUBIES AS WELL AS PINK TOURMALINES AND DIAMONDS OF THE 19th MOGULIDE-COLLE "ANIMAL" PRETIOSES THAT HAVE BEEN GREAT POPULARITY. LET'S SEE WHOM THE SWALLOW BROOCH, MADE IN ENGLAND AROUND 1890, DECORATED WITH DIAMOND ROSES, FLIES TO.
Bracelet from the fairy tale king
Bavaria's King Ludwig II liked to give gifts. And when it came to jewelry, he preferred to put it in royal blue cases. One of these cases also contains our three bracelets set with diamonds and luminous colored stones - which suggests the assumption that this is a gift from King Ludwig II. This assumption is corroborated by a slip of paper inserted into the case, dated 1880, on which it is noted in handwriting that it was Eugenie Félicité Sophie Dollmann who made the fairy tale king happy with the precious bracelets.
The recipient was a granddaughter of Leo von Klenze and wife of Georg Carl Heinrich Dollmann (1830 - 1895), who was in the service of Ludwig II as an architect from 1868 onwards. Linderhof Palace was built from 1870 to 1879 under Dollmann's aegis. In 1874, Dollmann had already taken over the management of the construction work for Neuschwanstein Castle that had started five years earlier. But as life goes: In 1884, the long-esteemed court building director fell out of favor with the king and was no longer allowed to complete Neuschwanstein Castle as a leading architect. The bangles remain as a reminder of better times.
Three bangles with coloured stones and diamonds
Probably a gift from King Louis II to Eugenie von Dollmann. South Germany, circa 1880
Rose gold 585/-, assayed. 18 old brilliant cut diamonds, totalling approx. 1.80 ct. 7 rubies in oval facet cut, totalling approx. 0.90 ct. 7 sapphires in oval facet cut, totalling approx. 1.20 ct. 7 emeralds in octagonal step cut, totalling approx. 1 ct. Approx. 6 x 5.6 cm (in the oval, external dimensions). Approx. 45.1 g.
A bracelet with diamonds and cultured pearls
Gift from Queen Maria Sophie of Sicily to her niece Princess Margarethe of Thurn and Taxis Munich circa 1920, RATH Jeweller
Yellow gold 750/-, assayed. 20 diamonds in different old cuts, totalling approx 1 ct., good quality. 7 white, slightly baroque cultured pearls, diameter approx. 5 mm / 3 mm. Length approx. 19.8. Ca. 66.8 g.
Made by Thurn und Taxis
The bracelet and ring from the possession of Princess Margarethe Klementine von Thurn und Taxis (1870-1955), born in 1870 as Archduchess Margit Clementine Maria of Austria and through marriage to Prince Albert von Thurn und Taxis (1867-1952), also have a courtly aura. Re-titled in 1890.
Margarethe von Thurn und Taxis led an exemplary, disciplined life, her day was well organized. Until she was 82 years old, she rode out every morning from 5.15 am in order to then pursue her job as a nurse; in both world wars the princess was active as a Red Cross sister.
Margarethe was also artistically active. Even as a teenager she showed great talent in the art of painting. In 1903 she and her father published the atlas of medicinal plants by Praelate Kneipp - with 186 colored plant tables and 45 other colored tables, which she signed with her nickname "Margit". In later years she devoted herself to sculpture. Margarethe also loved jewelry - which is also evidenced by the treasures from her possession that are now being auctioned at the summer auction. A ring with an oriental pearl and ten diamonds in different old European cut shapes is called up. A bracelet with diamonds and cultured pearls has a special story to tell, because this piece of jewelry, made around 1920, was a gift from Queen Marie Sophie of Sicily (1841 - 1925) to Margarethe - her niece, to whom she was very fond, which she shared with many Expressed gifts. Marie Sophie - sister of the famous Sisi - was a courageous and confident woman. Against Garibaldi, she fought fearlessly and bravely - sometimes with rifle in hand - at the side of her soldiers and went down in history as the "heroine of Gaeta".
A baby elephant made of obsidian with changeable balloons
Germany, Idar-Oberstein 2019, Master of gemstone engraving Matthias Fickinger
Yellow gold 750/-, assayed. 1 engraved obsidian, Russia, approx. 10.7 x 15 cm (dark grey-anthracite), pink rhodonite, recon-coral, -turquoise and -lapis lazuli. Flawless.
Elephant approx. 10.7 x 15 cm with balloon approx. 24 cm, balloons approx. 3.5 x 2.5 cm, heart balloon approx. 3 x 3.2 cm. Elephant with 3 balloons approx. 1071 g.
A historical brooch in the shape of a swallow with diamond roses
England, circa 1890
Rose gold 585/-, mounted with silver, assayed. Numerous diamond roses, approx. 2 ct., in medium quality, typical of the time. Very good condition.
Approx. 10 x 9.3 cm. Ca. 35.5 g.
Goldsmith's workmanship: the diamond roses are set in grained off-cut. The wings were pinned to the body in a movable way. Ornamental dolen wall on the back supporting the body. A double secured needle guide provides the fabric support.
A rare very ornamental swallow brooch from the last quarter of the 19th century, collectible.
TO BE OHR NOT TO BE
Not only have dinosaur bones been unearthed in Mongolia, but amazing pieces of jewelry, including several large pairs of jade earrings. They are estimated to be between 7,500 and 8,200 years old - the oldest ever found of earrings.
Earrings were worn in many cultures around the world, in ancient Egypt, Hellas, Byzantium, Rome and throughout the Orient. Over the centuries they acquired different meanings and also conveyed messages. During the French Revolution, for example, they were an expression of revolutionary sentiments. In the Biedermeier period, earrings became a widespread accessory for bourgeois women's jewelry that was also worn in everyday life.
But men also wore earrings. Oswald von Wolkenstein (1377 - 1445) describes in his song “Es fuegt”, how a Spanish noble lady pierces an ear with a brass needle: “I was won into the oren my / pierced by measuring with a needle / after iren dealing with iren So si me a ring there / I loyal to you for a long time, and they are called si raicades ”.
Famous bearers are William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and privateer Sir Francis Drake (1540-1596), both of which can be seen in some paintings with earrings. Many seafarers traditionally wore earrings - made of gold and with incorporated initials of the wearer. Not only was it beautiful, it also had a practical purpose: if an unfortunate drowned in the sea, he could be identified by the earring; and thanks to the gold ring, the cost of a Christian burial was covered.
“I'M BECOMING A PAINTER” DECIDED HÉLÈNE DE BEAUVOIR, BORN IN PARIS IN 1910, AT THE AGE OF 15 AND AFTER DRAWING OUT OF THE SHADOW OF HER ELDERLY, FAMOUS SISTER SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR. HÉLÈNE DE BEAUVOIRHINED A SIGNIFICANT UVRE. THESE WORKS LIKE “LA FLEUR INTERDITE” (1971) AND “IL VEUT TOUT PRENDRE” (1975), WHICH ARE AUCTIONED ALONGSIDE OTHERS IN THE NEUMEISTER SUMMER AUCTION. MAURICE UTRILLO (1883-1955), WHO WAS ALSO BORN IN PARIS, STARTED OUT AS A PAINTER AT THE AGE OF 19. POETIC-NAIVE PICTURES OF PARIS MAKE HIM FAMOUS, ESPECIALLY THE ROMANTIC PICTURE OF MONTMARTRE AS A QUARTER OF THE BOHEMES IS CHARACTERIZED BY HIS WORKS. THAT UTRILLO ALSO KNOWS HOW CITIES AND LANDSCAPES NORTH OF THE CAPITAL ARE SET IN THE SCENE, IS PROVIDED BY THE PAINTING UP FOR AUCTION AT NEUMEISTER, THAT SHOWS A RAILWAY BRIDGE IN CAEN. CONTEMPORARY ART IS ALSO REPRESENTED AT OUR SUMMER AUCTION. THE HIGHLIGHTS INCLUDE A LARGE-FORMAT WORK BY A.R.PENCK AND SEVERAL WORKS BY FRED THIELER, RUPPRECHTGEIGER, ANDREAS SCHULZE AND STEPHAN HUBER FROM A COMPANY COLLECTION.
RUPPRECHT GEIGER. ANDREAS SCHULZE. FRED THIELER. STEFAN HUBER: NEUMEISTER CALLS AT THE SUMMER AUCTION CONTEMPORARY ART A COMPANY COLLECTION. BEFORE THE AUCTION THERE WAS TIME FOR WORK SHOW IN SITO. PHOTOGRAPHED BY MICHAEL LEIS.
More and more companies are relying on art in-house. For good reasons: Art tells stories, enriches sterile offices meaningfully, polishes the company image in an innovative, creative and cosmopolitan way, supports brand goals and reflects the spirit of the company. Artfully designed entrance and waiting areas as well as meeting rooms will not fail to have an impact on customers either. Walls that were once cool suddenly speak to you emotionally, and also enable a smooth start into tough negotiations. It is precisely this communicative aspect that makes art exciting in corporate environments.
That entrepreneur had something similar in mind when he began equipping his company, Hannover Leasing, with contemporary art objects in the early 1990s - all of which he collected himself without a specific collection goal, rather according to personal preferences. For years the works of art worked in the company, a multi-storey office building in the south of Munich, and promoted the creative working atmosphere. Due to modernization measures, part of the collection is no longer required and is auctioned by NEUMEISTER. Impressive works by Andreas Schulze, Stephan Huber, Fred Thieler and Rupprecht Geiger are called up.
The entrepreneur knew some of “his” artists personally, such as ANDREAS SCHULZE (* 1955), whose works make up the largest part of the collection. Drawings, gouaches and, in some cases, large-format paintings will be called up. Andreas Schulze is undoubtedly one of the most interesting German painters of his generation. With his predominantly large-format, figurative, color-intensive and sensual paintings, he is often assigned to the “New Wilds” of the 1980s, but he always remains autodidact. Alienated houses, cars, fish, cars, potted plants and peas fill empty imagery. Surreal. Easy. Magical. Andreas Schulze's space-encompassing works are a topic in and of themselves. In 2014 he developed, for example, the fluorescent wall painting, “Pea Roads” for the Frankfurt Schirn Rotunda on 400 square meters. The works of the artist, who lives in Cologne, were and can be seen in numerous national and international solo exhibitions in galleries and museums (e.g. Sprüth Magers Gallery, Museum Hamburger Kunstverein, in the Deichtorhallen, in the Frankfurter Kunstverein and in the Kunsthalle Düsseldorf). Andreas Schulze received the Cologne Fine Art Prize in 2010.
Like Hannover Leasing, Stephan Huber (* 1952) is based in the Munich area. The multiple award-winning object artist and sculptor can look back on important solo exhibitions, exhibited at documenta (1987), and a large installation was on view in 1999 at a former naval base as part of the Venice Biennale. Stephan Huber realized several large-format works in public space. One example of this is “Gran Paradiso” in front of the New Fair in Munich-Riem: white models with reliefs of Alpine peaks (a typical factory metaphor), stacked on a huge metal shelf (an allusion to typical fair furniture), positioned in the middle of the fair lake. Stephan Huber's large-format maps have a large following among art lovers. The artist uses found map material and collages it with invented maps, thereby questioning a supposedly incorruptible, exact system of order. How fascinating such journeys are could be seen in 2015, for example, at the solo exhibition "Weltatlas" of the Munich ERES Foundation - but it can also be recreated at the NEUMEISTER auction, because in addition to lamp installations and light boxes, large-format maps by Stephan Huber are also auctioned there.
A painting by FRED THIELER (1916-1999), who is considered one of the pioneers of German Informel, will also be up for auction. Works by the artist, known for his lively exhibition activities, were shown at the Venice Biennale (1958), the documenta in Kassel (1959 and 1964) and the world exhibition in Montreal (1967). From 1946 to 1950, Fred Thieler studied painting with Karl Caspar at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, and that was when the first abstract pictures were created. He also left traces elsewhere in the Bavarian capital, for example in the Munich Residenztheater, for whose auditorium Fred Thieler created the large ceiling painting "Night Sky" in 1989. The artist, who was born in Königsberg and joined the White Rose in the war, received numerous awards, including the Lovis-Corinth Prize and the Federal Cross of Merit, 1st Class. The Berlinische Galerie has awarded the Fred Thieler Prize every year since 1992. Part of the company bundle is also a work by RUPPRECHT GEIGER (1908 - 2009). The virtuoso of light adored colors, staged them, made them glow and vibrate. Everything else is said. If you want to feel the incomparable violinist aura, it is best to visit the former studio in the Solln district of Munich. Today these serve as a domicile for the Geiger Archive. The archive offers public and individual archive tours - highly recommended! Information at: www.archiv-geiger.de
Hélène de Beauvoir (1910 Paris - 2001 Goxwiller)
I WILL BE A PAINTER BY KARIN SAGNER
Hélène and Simone de Beauvoir were two highly talented sisters, one painting and the other writing. Contemporaries called them “child prodigies”. While Simone de Beauvoir's appointment as a writer became apparent early on, the path of the multifaceted Hélène de Beauvoir was initially less clear. She also had a talent for writing, as evidenced by texts from a young age, later art historical and sociological writings and her memories. Simone de Beauvoir took an active part in her sister's work all her life and wrote several texts on it. And even if her assessments were not only benevolent at the beginning, she always remained loyal to the younger sister, whom she called "Poupette" (little doll). The reverse was also true: "I admired her without reservation, and that for my entire life," said Hélène about her older sister. The younger was always in the shadow of the older, until the painting gave the gifted the opportunity to gain recognition. “Subconsciously, I wanted to stand out from my sister. That is probably one of the reasons why I started drawing: it was the only area in which I was more talented than she was. ”And so Hélène de Beauvoir decided at the age of 15.“ I'll be a painter. ”Revolt against them The conventional order of society and its gender roles played a decisive role when a young woman devoted herself entirely to art in the late 1920s. And women's access to artistic creation was strictly regulated at the time. Up until the end of the 19th century, they were only able to attend public art academies to a limited extent or not at all. Like others, Hélène de Beauvoir avoided a private school.
“Be braver” was consequently one of the sentences uttered by male artist colleagues to which she was exposed like other female painters. It is therefore hardly surprising that the proportion of women artists in overview works on the avant-garde remained shamefully low and that Hélène de Beauvoir has so far been searched in vain in overview works on the art of the 20th century. With the exception of a small monograph in French (1991), there is no posthumous appreciation of the painter, although her qualitatively convincing oeuvre comprises more than 3,000 oil paintings and graphics and her works have been shown at major national and international exhibitions. This is all the more regrettable since, together with Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre, she took part in the great intellectual movements and social changes and reacted to them as a contemporary witness and painter. The examination of her work and life not only broadened the view of Simone de Beauvoir and Sartre, but also of the art of the 20th century. Hélène de Beauvoir received drawing lessons as a teenager and initially dreamed of illustrating books. Since drawing, watercolors and painting rounded off the education of young girls from a middle-class home as part of a hobby, the parents of the seventeen-year-old Hélène allowed the attendance of a drawing school.
Since Hélène de Beauvoir had no interest or even disgust for decoration as it was conveyed in the institution, it is not surprising that she attended evening courses at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière and the Académie Colarossi from 1927 to 1928. These private academies, founded around 1900, were also open to women and allowed painting according to male, but never completely naked, models in the evening nude classes. The Académie de la Grande Chaumière, founded by two women, advanced to become the most famous free art school in Paris in the first quarter of the 20th century. Especially in the evening it offered “croquis à cinq minutes”, during which the model changed positions every five minutes. The uncomplicated access was particularly attractive because you could enroll on a weekly, daily or even hourly basis. In 1927, Hélène de Beauvoir had classmates like Alberto Giacometti and Germaine Richier.
The “gates for painting” opened for her in 1928 when she attended another, newly founded art school on Rue de Fleurus. There Hélène de Beauvoir began with the woodcut, then with the etching, finally she turned to the copperplate, which for her was a revelation. Subsidized by the state, the École de Fleurus was supposed to introduce young women to techniques of applied art and commercial graphics, thus opening up career opportunities for them, for example as illustrators, that were previously largely closed to them. Hélène de Beauvoir also devoted himself extensively to literary illustration at that time.
The recently rediscovered woodcuts and engravings based on literary models by Hélène de Beauvoir would have suggested a successful career in this field. The illustration of books with original graphics, preferably woodcuts, had been re-explored around 1900 through the influence of Japanese color woodcut and Art Nouveau, so that illustrated bibliophile editions were in demand in France at the beginning of the 20th century. We do not know whether Hélène de Beauvoir got to know the woodcuts by Paul Gauguin, one of the founding fathers of modern woodcut, in this context, but we can assume it. She herself valued the German graphic artists of the 16th century such as Matthias Grünewald and Albrecht Dürer and began her own experiments with woodcuts. Hélène de Beauvoir's earliest surviving copperplate engravings include depictions of her own rowing club - in which her enthusiasm for the sport can be seen, which, like the new appearance of women with makeup, short hair and short skirts, was part of female liberation. In fact, the subject of sport remained significant for her throughout her life, including in a series of oil paintings with skiers. Oil painting, on the other hand, which she opened up in the last year of her apprenticeship at the École de Fleurus, became a great discovery for Hélène de Beauvoir. And since it required greater reflection compared to the more spontaneous watercolor or graphic techniques, she devoted herself to it with great devotion, without denying her drawing roots.
Signed and dated lower right. Signed again, dated, titled and inscribed with the place name Goxwiller on the wooden panel verso. Acrylic on panel. 77 x 75 cm. Framed.
Il veut tout prendre. 1975
Signed lower right. Signed again, dated and titled on the wooden panel verso. Numbered 10 and G45 verso. Acrylic on panel. 76.5 x 90 cm. Framed.
“I WAS FEMINIST BEFORE SIMONE AND BECAUSE OF HER. THAT WENT BACK A LONG WAY. [...] THAT MEN SHOULD BE NUMBER ONE AND WOMEN NUMBER TWO, HAVE ALWAYS REQUIRED ME. I WAS TEN, TWELVE YEARS OLD WHEN I DISAGRED THE CLAIM THAT MEN ARE WOMEN THAT YOU ONLY THINK OF NAPOLEON OR LUDWIG XIV., WITH THE LISTING OF BLANCHE DE CASTILLES AND JEANNE D'ARCS. "
Helene de Beauvoir
BEAUTIFUL BOOKS FOR WISE WOMAN BY KATJA KRAFT
We were just missing such books. So it's lucky that Elisabeth Sandmann had the courage to found her eponymous publishing house 17 years ago - in which she publishes “beautiful books for clever women”. A motto that, of course, falls short. These really handsome books are not only for smart women - men are allowed to read them too; and do it more and more often. The publisher brings out ten to 15 new publications a year, all of them inspiring stories from strong women. For example, the work “Unusual women entrepreneurs and the secret of their success”, published in 2021, in which NEUMEISTER boss Katrin Stoll is portrayed, among others. Like the director of the auction house, Elisabeth Sandmann is particularly concerned with the restitution of Nazi-looted art. She herself wrote a book about the story of Gustav Klimt's "Golden Adele". The journalist Katja Kraft in conversation with Elisabeth Sandmann (born 1960) about role models, raised index fingers and the courage to demand.
At the summer auction, NEUMEISTER is auctioning several pictures by Hélène de Beauvoir, whose memoirs you published a long time ago. What impresses you about Hélène de Beauvoir?
I am impressed by her radical social streak, her visionary uncompromising attitude and her commitment to combating violence against women - or as Elle magazine wrote in 1960: “The daughter from a good family has become a great painter. Talent runs in the family. "
Is that the goal: to be the first - the (re) discoverer of special ladies? Your publisher was also the first to publish a book about women at the Bauhaus; or, most recently, a work about the designer Charlotte Perriand, who had been forgotten in Germany until then.
Elisabeth Sandmann: (Laughs) Yes, it's nice when we are the first. When our book about women at the Bauhaus was published ten years ago, hardly anyone knew that women had even existed there. Our author Ulrike Müller is a proven Bauhaus expert - all of the following books on this topic have basically had to refer to us. It is so often. And when new biographies emerge as a result of the discoveries we have unearthed, we are of course very happy.
Because in the end it’s exactly that for you: to call back what has been forgotten?
Exactly! I think there are so many women who have achieved great things. We want to get them out of the blue and give them the shine they deserve. My generation, for example, grew up without knowing these women.
So books as inspiration - which make it clear to the readers: Hey, you can make a difference or develop yourself from scratch?
That too. Many of the women 50, 60 plus are amazed that these women existed. It's like being given something that was withheld from them.
As a young woman, you too lacked female role models?
Yes, because they hardly or not at all appeared in the most important positions. I thought it was amazing at the time that there was a Prime Minister in England. This Margaret Thatcher was overdrawn and almost looked like a caricature to us. Otherwise there wasn't much. In the school books there was always only Marie Curie ...
... and Simone de Beauvoir ...
... exactly, and Simone de Beauvoir. Then maybe Paula Modersohn-Becker and that's it ...
So you fill a personal gap with your publishing program?
In a way, yes. I think that it is simply part of our story that we have the other part - namely the female! - see, acknowledge and appreciate. In every small village in this country you have a memorial that commemorates the fallen soldiers in World War I. But you don't have a single memorial to commemorate the women who looked after the children in those wars, cared for the elderly, toiled in the factories, kept the farms going, and made money as conductors or otherwise.
Is that also due to the women themselves? Because they are too reluctant?
Absolutely. When their achievements are seen, they sometimes make themselves small, according to the motto: “Oh, that's not worth mentioning.” I wish that we women would become more demanding - in all areas.
A strong woman is characterized by being comfortable with herself. I think only then can she be really strong.
Your publisher would also like to be a reminder to change that?
No, we don't want to remind you. The publisher is not supposed to moralize. I wish that you read these books and end up thinking that you have learned something - without noticing it. Then basically everything is achieved. Yet I don't want to be embarrassed with a moral index finger.
But you want to be political. In an interview you once said: “The cozy years are over.” You want to be combative - how is that reflected in the publisher's program?
We keep making books that are a statement. Restitution, for example, is also a statement. By saying: We want the museums to exercise their responsibility and, for example, search their holdings to see whether there are any works of art that need to be checked again for provenance. Or we publish books like “A Touch of Lipstick for Dignity”. A political book about how women try to save face in the truest sense of the word in times of crisis, war or when they are in camps and prisons. And how strongly oppressive structures know that they can reach women right there when they deny them the opportunity to take care of their own bodies.
Keyword restitution: You yourself wrote your research-intensive book “Der stolen Klimt” in addition to your demanding job as head of the publishing house. Are you a strong woman yourself?
Yeah, I would hope that it is me. I always wanted to be that too. I always wanted to be a woman who knew what she wanted. And who also stands up for other women. It's okay for them to say: I want to be successful with the publisher. These are all things that as a woman you weren't allowed to say for a long time.
After all, one should exercise restraint ... Is that what makes strong women stand out: that they ignore such gender role expectations? What is a strong woman for you?
A strong woman is characterized by being comfortable with herself. I think only then can she be really strong. That she fights or stands up for something that goes beyond her own personal interest. Representing people who do not have the opportunity to protect their interests.